Factors that De-motivate EFL Students’ Class Participation at a School of Languages
Keywords:class participation, demotivation factors, EFL, students’ perceptions
The goal of this qualitative study was to discover the nature of the factors that may demotivate university EFL students from participating in class. While previous studies conducted have focused on factors that affect classroom participation in general, this study involved in-depth interviews and observations in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the demotivating factors that impact EFL student participation levels. The study focuses on the participants’ participation habits and their perceptions of the factors that may inhibit it, that discourage learners from participating fully in class, and that effect learning negatively. The findings suggest that students’ perceptions of participation and their self-esteem and confidence affect their level of participation. They also indicate that the teacher’s role is an important variable in why students decide to remain silent.
Allen, M. (2017). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods. Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483381411
Aulls, M. W. (2004). Students' experiences with good and poor university courses. Educational Research and Evaluation, 10(4-6), 303-335. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803610512331383479
Allwright, R., Allwright, D., Bailey, K. M. (1991). Focus on the language classroom: An introduction to Classroom research for language teachers. Cambridge University Press
Bailey, C. (2007). A Guide to Qualitative Field Research (2nd ed.). Pine Forge Press. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412983204
Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing grounded theory. (2nd ed.). Sage Publications.
Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2013) Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. Sage Publishing.
Clement, R., Gardner, R. C., & Smythe, P. C. (1977). Motivational variables in second language acquisition: A study of Francophones learning English. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, 9(2), 123-133. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0081614
Crawford, G. (2004). Managing the Adolescent Classroom: Lessons from Outstanding Teachers. Corwin Press.
Creswell, J. (2014). Research design qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach (3rd ed.). Sage Publications Inc.
Czekanski, E., & Wolf, Z. (2013). Encouraging and Evaluating Class Participation, Journal of niversity Teaching & Learning Practice, 10 (1), 2-15.
Davies, M. (2007). Doing a successful research project. Palgrave Macmillan.
Davies, M., & Hughes, N. (2014). Doing a successful Research project: using qualitative or quantitative methods (2nd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-30650-0_14
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1998). Strategies of quantitative inquiry. Sage Publications Inc.
Edwards, J., & Liu, J. (2008). Peer Response in Second Language Writing Classrooms (2nd ed.). The University of Michigan Press.
Fritschner, L. M. (2000). Inside the undergraduate college classroom: Faculty and Students differ on the meaning of student participation. The Journal of Higher Education, 71(3), 342-362. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2000.11780826
Grossman, H. (2004). Classroom Behavior Management for Diverse and Inclusive Schools (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Hartas, D. (2010). Educational Research and Inquiry: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Continuum International Publishing Group.
Hayward, C. (2000). De-Facing Power. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511490255.002
Hennessy, S., & Warwick, P. (2013). Developing Interactive Teaching and Learning Using the Iwb. A resource for teachers. Open University Press.
Hill, T. (2007). Classroom Participation. United States Military Academy.
Ho, D. (2007). Classroom Talk: Exploring the Sociocultural Structure of Formal ESL Learning (2nd ed.). Peter Lang AG.
Howard, M.D., Geller, R.J., Rubin M.D., Nodvin, J. (2006). Safe and healthy school environments. Oxford University Press.
Hue, M, & Li, W. (2008). Classroom management: Creating a positive learning environment (Eds.). Hong Kong University Press. https://doi.org/10.5790/hongkong/9789622098886.001.0001
Lang, M. (1996). Effects of class participation on student achievement and motivation. Retrieved from Unpublished Honours Thesis, University of Western Ontario.
Kanazawa, M. (2018). Research Methods for Environmental Studies: A Social Science Approach. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315563671
Madrid Fernández, D., & Pérez Cañado, M. L. (2001). Exploring the student's motivation In the EFL class. In E. García (ed), Present and future Trends in TEFL (pp. 321-364). Universidad de Almería: Secretariado de Publicaciones.
Mckeachie, W., & Svinicki, M. (2011). McKeachie's Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers (13th ed.). Cengage Learning.
Merriam, S., & Tisdell, E. (2015). Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation (4th ed.). Jossey Bass.
Mertens, D. (2005). Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology: Integrating Diversity quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (2nd ed.). Sage Publications.
Michael, J., & Modell, H. (2003). Active Learning in Secondary and College Science Classrooms: A Working Model for Helping the Learner to Learn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410609212
Abdullah, M, Y., Abu Bakar, N. R., & Mahbob, M. H. (2012). Student's participation in the classroom: What motivates them to speak up? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 51(2012), 516-522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.08.199
Mustaphaa, S. M., Abd Rahmanb, N. S. N., & Yunus, M. M. (2010). Factors Influencing classroom participation: a case study of Malaysian undergraduate students. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.289
Murray, G., & Lang, M. (1997). Does classroom participation improve student learning? University of Western Ontario
Peterson, R. M. (2001). Course participation: An active learning approach employing Student documentation. Journal of Marketing Education, 23(3),187-194. https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475301233004
Petress, K. (2006). An Operational Definition of Class Participation. College Student Journal, 40(4), 821-823.
Raworth, K., Sweetman, C., Narayan, S., Rowlands, L., & Hopkins, A. (2012). Conducting Semi-structured Interviews. Oxfam GB.
Reid, A., Jensen, B., Nickel, J., & Simovska, V. (2008). Participation and Learning: Perspectives on Education and the Environment, Health, and Sustainability. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6416-6_1
Reifman, S. (2008). Eight Essentials for Empowered Teaching and Learning, K-8: Bringing Out the Best in Your Students. Corwin Press.
Robinson, P., & Kang, N. (2015). English Learning areas in pre-primary classrooms: An investigation of their effectiveness. The British Council.
Rocca, K. (2010). Student Participation in the College Classroom: An Extended Multidisciplinary Literature Review. Communication Education, 59(2), 185-212. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520903505936
Rollins, S. (2014). Learning in the Fast Lane: 8 Ways to Put ALL Students on the Road to Academic Success. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Scarlett, W. (2015). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Classroom Management. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483346243
Schuh, J., & Associates. (2008). Assessment Methods for Student Affairs. Jossey Bass.
Schwartz, M. (2018). Preschool Bilingual Education: Agency in Interactions between Children, Teachers, and Parents. Springer International Publishing AG. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77228-8_1
Shepherd, T., & Linn, D. (2015). Behavior and Classroom Management in the Multicultural Classroom: Proactive, Active, and Reactive Strategies. Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483366647
Shindler, J. V. (2003). Creating a more peaceful classroom community by assessing student participation and process. The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution, 5(1), 20-32. www.trinstitute.org/ojpcr/5_1shindler.htm
Smith, D. G. (1977). College classroom interactions and critical thinking. Journal of Educational Phycology, 69(2), 180-190. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.168
Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 235-253). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Tatar, S. (2005). Why keep silent? The classroom participation experiences of non-native English speaking students. Language and Intercultural Communication, 5(3-4), 284-293. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708470508668902
Tode, T. (2008). Effects of Frequency in Classroom Second Language Learning: Quasi-experiment and Stimulated-recall Analysis. Peter Lang AG.
Urquhart, C. (2013). Grounded Theory for Qualitative Research: a Practical Guide. City Road, Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526402196
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803932
Yin. R. (2012). Applications of Case Study Research. Sage Publications.
Zacharias, N.T. (2014). Second Language Teacher Contributions to Student Classroom Participation: A Narrative Study of Indonesian Learners. EFTWorldOnline, 6(1), 1-15. http://blog.nus.edu.sg/eltwo/?p=4358.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.