Using Digital Formative Assessment to Evaluate EFL Learners’ English Speaking Skills
Keywords:Digital formative assessment, foreign language speaking skills, formative assessment, language testing
As it is known formative assessment focuses on both the learning process and learner's performance. In this study digital formative assessment and traditional speaking tests were utilized comparatively to evaluate 52 upper-intermediate EFL learners' English language speaking skills. The study was designed as a mixed-method. The quantitative data were collected via achievement tests which had been administered both in traditional speaking tests and digital formative tests. The qualitative findings were collected with students' interviews which consisted of four open-ended questions. The results of the study showed that participants outperformed in digital formative tests in comparison to traditional speaking tests. Another significant finding of the study is that participants are satisfied with the digital formative assessments in terms of peer collaboration during tests, enriched test materials, and preparation time for the speaking test. Although they have positive views on digital formative assessment, participants are dissatisfied with it in terms of technical problems that they encountered during the administration of digital formative tests.
Bachman, L. F., Palmer, A. S. (2010). Language assessment in practice: Developing language assessments and justifying their use in the real world. Oxford: OUP.
Baleni Z. (2015). Online formative assessment in higher education: Its pros and cons, The Electronic Journal of e-Learning,13(4), 228-236.
Bell, B., & Cowie, B. (2001). Formative assessment and science education. Dordrecht,
The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998a). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5(1),7-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/0969595980050102
Brown, G. T. L. (2008). Conceptions of assessment: Understanding what assessment means to teachers and students. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers
Boz, N. & Boz, Y. (2005). Investigating Formative Assessment. Education and Science, 30(138), 63-69.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2013). Teaching English in the context of world Englishes. In M. CelceMurcia, D. M. Brinton,& M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (4th ed, pp. 2-14).Boston, MA: National Geographic Learning/Cengage Learning.
Cepik, S., & Yastibas, A. E. (2013). The use of e-portfolio to improve English speaking skill of Turkish EFL learners. Anthropologist, 16(1-2), 307-317. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2013.11891358
Çetin Köroglu, Z. (2019). Interventionist Dynamic Assessment's Effects on Speaking Skills Testing: Case of Elt Teacher Candidates. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 10(3), 23-31. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.10n.3p.23
Dingli, A., & Seychell, D. (2015). Who Are the Digital Natives?. In The New Digital Natives (pp. 9-22). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-46590-5_2
Dirksen D. (2011). Hitting the reset button. Phi Delta Kappan 92(7), 26-31. https://doi.org/10.1177/003172171109200706
Dixson, D. D., & Worrell, F. C. (2016). Formative and summative assessment in the classroom. Theory Into Practice, 55(2), 153-159. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2016.1148989
Faber, M. J., Luyten, H. & Visscher, J. A. (2017). The effects of a digital formative assessment tool on mathematics achievement and student motivation: Results of a randomized experiment, Computers& Education, 106, 83-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.12.001
Facione, P. A. (2011). Critical thinking: what it is and why it counts. Millbrae: Measured Reasons and the California Academic Press.
Golkova, D., & Hubackova, S. (2014). Productive skills in second language learning. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 143, 477-481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.520
Huang, D. H., Hung, A. S., & Plakans, L. (2018). Topical knowledge in L2 speaking assessment: Comparing independent and integrated speaking test tasks. Language Testing, 35(1), 27-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532216677106
Jamieson, J. (2005). Trends in computer-based second language assessment. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 228-242.
Kincal, R.Y. & Ozan, C. (2018). Effects of Formative Assessment on Prospective Teachers' Achievement, Attitude and Self-Regulation Skills. International Journal of Progressive Education, 14(2), 77-92. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2018.139.6
Knight, B. (1992). Assessing speaking skills: A workshop for teacher development, ELT Journal, 46 (3), 294-302. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/46.3.294
Leung, C. (2005). Classroom teacher assessment of second language development: Construct as practice. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Leung, C, &Mohan, B. (2004). Teacher formative assessment and talk in classroom contexts: Assessment as discourse and assessment of discourse. Language Testing, 21, 335- 359. https://doi.org/10.1191/0265532204lt287oa
Levy, M., & Stockwell, G. (2006). CALL dimensions: Options and issues in computer assisted language learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Luoma, S. (2004). Assessing speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511733017
McMillan, J. H. (2014). Classroom assessment: Principles and practice for effective standards- based ınstruction (5th ed.). Essex: Pearson.
O'Connor, K. (2002). How to grade for learning. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight.
Ounis, A. (2017). The Assessment of Speaking Skills at the Tertiary Level. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(4), 95-112. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v7n4p95
Poehner, M. E., & Lantolf, J. P. (2005). Dynamic assessment in the language classroom. Language Teaching Research, 9 (1), 1-33. https://doi.org/10.1191/1362168805lr166oa
Stanca, C., Georgescu, S., Mina, S. & Olteanu, A. (2015). Measures of transforming the summative assessment in formative assessment in students activities evaluation at Constanta Maritime University. Karabük University Journal ıf Institute of Social Sciences, 5(1), 32-47.
Stiggins, R. J. (2002). Where is our assessment future and how can we get there from here? In R. W. Lissitz & W. D. Schafer (Eds.), Assessment in Educational Reform: Both Means and Ends (pp. 18-48). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Wood, D. F. (2010). Formative assessment. In T. Swanwick (Ed.), Understanding medical education: Evidence, theory and practice (pp. 259-270). Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444320282.ch18
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.